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PRESSED FROM EXPLODED WOOD 

Masonite Presdwoods are scientifically manufactured boards made 
entirely of exploded wood fibre — a process discovered by the late 
W. H. JNIason, after whom the j)roduct is named. They possess many 
of the better characteristics of wood but are without grain weakness 
and other defects found in wood. 

In the production of these scientific wood products, clean wood chips 
are exploded into fibre under high pressure steam. The explosion 
process produces fine woody fibres of varying lengths coated with 
lignin, which is the natural binding agent of the wood. The exploding 
process is purely a physical separation of the woody fibres, and no 
chemicals are used in the process. 

The fibres are refined, felted, and in flatbed heated hydraulic presses 
are pressed into board form. Pressure is applied hydraulically until 
the required degree of density is obtained; the heat of the platens in 
the presses drives off all the moisture. It is possible, therefore to make 
Masonite Presdwoods in various degrees of density and thickness. 




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156 Questions and Answers . . . also hints, tips and 
information about MASONITE Brand Products 



I 






1. Question, "What are the principal 
Masonite Brand Products? 

Answer^ Tempered Presdwood, Black 
Tempered Presdwood, Presdwood 
Temprtile, Tempered Flooring, Con- 
crete Form Presdwood, Untempered 
Presdwood. 

2. Question, Are Masonite Presd- 
woods more fire-resistant than lum- 
ber? 

Answer. Yes, because Piesdwoods 
have a much slower combustion rate 
than wood, due to its density and to 
the removal of the pine oil, turpentine 
and other inflammable materials usual- 
\y found in wood. 

3. Question, Can ordinary wood- 
working tools be used on Presd- 
woods ? 

Answer. Yes! As Presdwoods are pro- 
duced from wood, they can be cut and 
worked with all woodworking tools. 
Special tools for bevelling, grooving 
and fluting have been developed. (See 
Questions No. 44 and 63) . 

4. Question, Can Presdwood be bent? 

Answer, Masonite Presdwood is more 
flexible than lumber and may be easily 
bent or curved in one direction. (See 
Questions No. 110 to 118 for Method 
of Bending) . 



5. Question, Are Masonite Presd- 
woods more resistant to moisture 
than wood? 

Answer, Yes, particularly Masonite 
Tempered Presdwood which, under 
test, shows no surface absorption what- 
soever when totally immersed in water 
for two hours. 

6. Question. Can Tempered Presd- 
wood be used for exterior purposes 
and exposed to the weather? 

Answer, Yes, JMasonite Tempered 
Presdwood is recommended for this pur- 
pose. Special application and finishing 
instructions should be read in this con- 
nection. (See Questions No. 6^ to 84). 

7. Question, What is the chief dif- 
ference between Tempered Presd- 
wood and Untempered Presdwood? 

Answer, Masonite Tempered Presd- 
wood is made by subjecting Untem- 
pered Presdwood to a treatment with 
special oil, later baking at high temper- 
atures and rehumidifying. This treat- 
ment is applied to Tempered Presd- 
woods of all thicknesses. It improves 
the board in strength, toughness and 
resistance to moisture absorption. 

8. Question, What is the difference 
between Masonite Tempered Presd- 
wood and Black Tempered Presd- 
wood? 



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Answer, Black Tempered Presdwood 
has the surface fibres stained black 
during the process of manufacture, 
making it ideal where no other surface 
finish is required — such as drain boards, 
counter and table tops, etc. 

9. Question, What is the chief dif- 
ference hetween Tempered Presd- 
wood and Temprtile? 

Answer, Temprtile is Tempered Presd- 
wood with score lines pressed into the 
surface during the process of manufac- 
ture, to produce the effect of 4" x 4" 
tile. 



10. Question, What advantages has 
Tempered Presdwood over other 
products ? 

Answer, 

(1) No laminations. 

(2) Equal strength in all directions. 

(3) Will not split, chip, crack or check. 

(4) Cuts with cleaner edges. 

(5) More pliable. 

(6) Better surface for finishing. 

(7) More resistant to moisture. 

(8) Can be nailed closer to edge. 



YOU CAN PLAN ANY FINISH FOR 




^te^dwcocU- 



There's no limit to the surface effects you can get with 
the Masonite Presdwoods. Their natural rich brown sur- 
face is super-smooth, uniform in color, hard and dense. 
There is no grain to raise or mar the finish, no tendency 
to crock or splinter or chip. You'll find far more latitude 
in product design when you plan with the versatile 
Masonite Presdwoods in mind. These unique hardboords 
bond well with paint, baked enamel or lacquers, and 
develop a handsome color pattern with waxes. They take 
and hold wood groin effects created by the silk screen 
or the lithograph process. Masonite Presdwoods offer 
unusual opportunities for designer and decorator . . . 
and their production advantages moke them doubly 
welcome in all kinds of products. 




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In this attractive living and music room 
a distinctive wall treatment has been 
achieved with Masonite Presdwood bev- 
elled panels applied horizontally and 
painted a rich off-white shade. Standard 
Presdwood panels also form the pleasing 
and harmonious ceiling design. 



Here is a really unusual children's room, 
specially designed for youngsters. For 
utmost durabilityi Tempered Presdwood 
is used for cabinets, stair-treads, drawers 
and built-in features of the double-deck 
bunk. Wall and ceiling panels are 
Masonite Presdwood painted white. 




S(Mie a^t^ USES e?^ 




'Pn.e^dcuw^dA 



11. Question, Wliat are some of the 
main uses of Untempered Freed- 
wood? 

Ansivcr, It is used for interior work, 
such as wall and ceiling panels, show- 
cases, window backgrounds, drawer 
bottoms, for tiie manufacture of toys, 
and many industruil uses, 

12. Question, Name some advan- 
tages over compelitive materials? 

Answer, Presdwood has many advan- 
tages: — may be bent easily, smooth 
surface, readily painted, low cost, and 
thinness of material, 3'ct great strength. 

13. Question, Can Untempered 
Presdwood be used for outside use? 

Ansiver, No. Untempered Presdwood 
should be used for interior finish only 
and in such pLaces where there is no 
excessive humidity. It should never be 
used in bathrooms, showers, laundries, 
etc. In such installations, as well as for 
exterior use, Tempered Presdwood is 
essential. 

14. Question, Is Masonile Untem- 
pered Presdwood adaptable for store 
modernization? 

Answer. Yes, old-fashioned counters, 
shelving, etc., can be easily modernized 
with the use of Presdwood. Only minor 
alterations and framing is necessary 
to transform an old-fashioned store 
into a modern shop. 



15. Question. Wliat are the advan- 
tages of Presdwood for flush doors? 

Answer, Presdwood has a smooth, 
grainless, surface which will take a high- 
gloss enamel without danger of the 
grain marring the finish as is the case of 
many competitive materials. It will not 
crack, check, chip, or allow the door to 
sag. 

16. Question, Can ordinary panel 
doors be converted into a modern 
flush door? 

Answer, First, remove all hardware 
from door, (2) scrape or plane off all 
paint, fill recesses of door panels with 
fibre board securely held and flush with 
the stiies and braces. The Masonite 
Presdwood panel (which must be 
slightly larger than the door) should 
be pre-expanded, (3) cover screen side 
with waterproof adhesive, place the 
panel on the door, press into position 
with use of sandbags or other heavy 
weights and allow to set for 24 hours, 
(4) plane off protruding edges and re- 
move sharp edge with sandpaper. 

17. Question. Name some of the 
many uses for Tempered Presdwood? 

Answer, As an exterior finish for store 
fronts, buildings, display signs, floors, 
counter and table tops, boats, flush 
doors, trucks, trailers, kennels, wall 
treatments, etc., where a hard surface 
is required or excessive moisture or 
humidity is present. 



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18. Question, 1& Tempered Presd- 22. Question. How can scratches be 
wood recommended for laboratory removed from Masonite Tempered 
labia tops? Presdwood? 



Answer. Tempered Presdwood, if treat- 
ed with acid-resisting solution, proves 
highly satisfactory. 

19. QuestioTU What is the acid- 
resisting solution? 

Answer. This treatment consists of two 
solutions. 

Solution 1 

125 gr. copper sulphate 

125 gr. potassium chlorate 
1000 gr. water 

Solution 2 

150 gr. good fresh anilin oil 

180 gr. concentrated hydrochloric 
acid 
1000 gr. water ^ • 

Presdwood panels should be free of 
grease, paint or any other foreign sub- 
stance. Apply two coats of Solution 1, 
boiling hot. When dry, apply two coats 
of Solution 2, also boiling hot. When 
completely dry, wash off excess chemic- 
als with hot soapsuds and polish surface 
with raw linseed oil. : • ■■ - 

20. Question, How often should this 
treatment be repeated? 

Answer. It is advisable to repeat it 
periodically, depending on its use, say 
every three to four months. 

21. Question. Name some of the 
uses of Tempered Presdwood where 
the fact that it is grainless is of prime 
importance. 

Answer. Due to the glass-like surface 
and the absence of slivers and protrud- 
ing fibres, it is particularly adaptable 
for display tables and counters for 
lingerie, hosiery or any place where 
Masonite Tempered Presdwood comes 
in contact with sheer fabrics. It is useful 
for industrial purposes as sorting tables 
to protect employees hands against 
slivers. 



Answer. First, remove all wax finishes 
with benzine or naphtha, then apply 
Masonite Protective Coating — a linseed 
oil compound mixed with driers and 
fillers. Masonite Protective Coating 
should be applied with a rag, allowed 
to stand for a few minutes, then polish 
with a clean soft cloth or cheesecloth. 
This product gives a shiny finish to 
Tempered Presdwood and, because it 
makes the surface slightly darker, 
scratches are less noticeable. It is par- 
ticularly recommended for Black Tem- 
pered Presdwood. ; 

23. Question. Name a few uses for 
Black Tempered Presdwood. 

Answer. Decorative strips, baseboards, 
table, counter, desk, or bar tops, kitchen 
cabinet tops or any place where a black 
surface is required, and high resistance 
to humidity is necessary. 

I 

24. Question. Should Black Tem- 
pered Presdwood be pre-expanded 
before installation? 

■ 

Answer. Black Tempered Presdwood 
should always be pre-expanded. (See 
page 10) . 

25. Question, How can Black Tem- 
pered Presdwood used as a table or 
bar top be kept in good condition? 

Answer. Immediately after installation 
apply Masonite Protective Coating or 
boiled linseed oil to surface. Later, if it 
shows any indication of fading, give 
entire surface an application of Mason- 
ite Penetrating Dye. Before doing so, 
make sure to remove any grease, oil or 
wax, with naphtha. To remove varnish, 
use standard varnish remover. 



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26. Question, How should vertical 28. Question. Where can ihe uee of 
surfaoee be treated to keep in good Maeonite Tempered Flooring be re- 
condition? commended? 



Answer. By rubbing the surface with 
boiled linseed oil or wax. 

27, Question. Name a few important 
uses for Temprtile. 

Answer. For bathrooms, shower rooms, 
kitchen dados, back of kitchen sinks, 
laundry tubs, dados for restaurants 
and beauty shops, face of counters, 
wails of food markets, etc. 



Answer. In dance halls, auditoriums, 
oflSces, clubs, schools, departmental 
stores and homes. 



29. Question^ What are the advan- 
tages of Masonite Tempered Flooring 
over similar materials? 

Answer. Durabihty, ease of repairs, low 
cost of up-keep. 



HOW TO PRE-EXPAND 
PRESDWOOD PANELS 



At least 24 hours before applying the panels they should 
be thoroughly wet on the screen side, using a stiff broom 
to brush the water Into the surface. While wet, the 
panels should be stacked flot in a pile — screen side to 
screen side — and allowed to stand until ready for 
application. To avoid staining, use clean water only. In 
freezing temperature; pre-expandlng must be done in a 
heated room. 




PPESDWOODS 



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In the modernized general office illuslrated 
above Masonite Presdwood panels were 
vertically applied to walls. Aluminum 
mouldings were used for joint treatment, 
corners and column decoration. Receptive 
to a glossy paint or lacquer finish the 
Presdwood panels have high reflectivity. 



Wear resistant Masonite Tempered Presd- 
wood provided the dado treatment in this 
office installation. Presdwood was also 
used for sides and front of counter and 
desks, and Black Tempered Presdwood 
for the top. Floor application features 
durable Masonite Tempered Flooring. 




7^ APPLICATION ^ 




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30. Question. What should he done 
I)efore coiiiineiicing the application 
of Masonlte Prcsdwoods? 

Answer. The job should be carefully 
planned and the size and number of 
I)ancls required determined so as to 
decide on the framing detail. 

31. Question, Is any special framing 
nceessarj'? 

Answer. No. Follow ordinary building 
practice. Set studs, joists, or furring as 
in ordinary frame construction spaced 
accurately on 12" or 16" centres. Use 
headers back of all joints, chair rails, 
etc., except when applied over solid 
backing. Shim furring to produce a true 
and level surface. Additional framing 
may be necessary for special designs or 
patterns. 

32. Question. Should all joints rest 
on solid hacking? 



Ansiver, Yes, in every case. 

33. Question. Should Presdwoods 
he pre-expanded? 

Answer. It is advisable to pre-expand 
Presdwoods when installed in places 
where excessive humidity is present, 
e.g., buildings that are newly com- 
pleted. (See page 10) . 

34. Question, Should the panels of 
Presdwood he placed lightly to- 
gether ? 

Answer. If there is excessive moisture 
in the building and all panels have 
been pre-expanded according to in- 
structions (see page 10) the joints can 
be fitted closely together. They must 
not be forced into position. Pre-expand- 
ing will not harm Masonite. The oper- 
ation is simple and assures a good 
installation. 



/^^W NAILING 



35. Question. Where should the 
nailing of panels commence? 

Answer. Beginning at or near the centre 
of the panel, nail to intermediate sup- 
ports first and then edges and ends. All 
nails should be driven perpendicular to 
the surface, 

36. Question, What kind of nails 
should be used? 



Answer, Where heads of nails are cover- 
ed with mouldings, ly^' box nails 
should be used. If heads are to be ex- 
posed, use 1%" 16-gauge casing head 
nails. 

37. Question. Should the nails he 
countersunk? 

Answer, The nails should not be coun- 
tersunk, but may be driven home with 
the ball of the hammer. 



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38. Question, What kind of nails 
should he used when panels are ex- 
posed to weather, or when excessive 
moisture is present? 

Answer. Copper coated, galvanized or 
cadmium plated nails are recommended 
for all exterior uses or where boards are 
subjected to continuous moisture. 

39. Question, How far apart should 
nails be spaced? 

Answer. Nails should be spaced ap- 
proximately 6" apart on intermediate 
supports and 4" apart around edges and 
ends. 

40. Question, How far should nails 
penetrate the nailing base? 

Anstver, Not less than 1". 

41. Question. Is toe nailing recom- 
mended? 

Ansiver, Toe nailing is not recom- 
mended under any circumstances. 

42. Question. Can screws he used? 

Ansiver, Screws may be used and spaced 
as outlined in answer to question No. 
39. If flat-head screws are used thev 
should be countersunk. 

' I 

43. Question, Should Tempered 
Presdwood always be applied over 
solid backing? 

Answer, It is recommended that %" 
and 3/16" Tempered Presdwood should 
always have a solid backing, but %" 
and 5/16" can be placed over strapping 
or studding, not over 10" on centres. 

44. Question. What tools are re- 
quired to cut Tempered Presdwood? 

Answer, Ordinary carpenters tools and 
small power saws, such as Skilsaw, are 
very useful. 



45. Question, What kind of nails are 
recommended for application of 
Tempered Presdwood? 

Ansiver. If nails are to be left exposed 
we recommend IV2" 16-gauge casing 
head nails, preferably coated. Where an 
excessive amount of moisture is present 
or for outside work, it is advisable that 
these nails be cadmium plated, galvan- 
ized, or copper coated. 

46. Question. Why are these nails 

recommended ? 

- 

Answer, The casing head nail is pre- 
ferred to the common finishing nail 
because the casing head nail has a fine 
point which will penetrate the Tem- 
pered Presdwood without breaking the 
fibres. The head of a casing head nail 
will w^edge itself tightly into the hole 
made by the shank of the nail, whereas 
the head of the common finishing nail 
will bruise and break the fibres of the 
board when the head of the nail is driven 
flush with the surface. Sketch below 
shows importance of proper nailing. • 




WIGHT 





^ 



7 



WRONG 



Casing head nails, specially made for 
use in Masonite Presdwood installa- 
tions are stocked in our Montreal ware- 
house. Prices, samples and detailed in- 
formation from any International 
Fibre Board Limited, Branch Office or 
sales representative. 

47, Question, Are nails to be coun- 
tersunk in Tempered Presdwood? 

Ansiver, Nails should not be counter- 
sunk on Tempered Presdwood. A blow 
with the ball of the hammer is sufficient 
to sink the head of the nail the required 
distance below the surface. 



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48. Question. When should panels 
be cemented to base? 

Ansi4)er. When applied to any solid 
backing such as plaster, concrete, wood, 
or wall panels, 

49. Question. What should he the 

first operation before applying 
cement to back of panels? 

Answer. Thoroughly' prepare the sur- 
face, remove loose wall material and 
smooth oiT all projections, patching 
same if necessary; remove loose paint 
and all wallpaper; thoroughly clean off 
all grease, etc., which may effect bond- 
ing of the adhesive. It is important that 
the wall be true, level and plumb. Care- 
fully cut and fit boards prior to applica- 
tion and make sure that sufficient brac- 
ing or shoring is on hand. (See Question 
No. 55) . 

50. Question. Should the adhesive 
be spread over the entire screen sur- 
face of the Presdwood i>anel or just 
spotted ? 

Answer, The adhesive should be spread 
over the entire screen surface of the 
panel. Where excessive humidity is 
present, special precautions are neces- 
sary (see Question Xo. 72). 

51. Question. What tool should be 
used to spread the adhesive? 

Answer, A saw-tooth trowel having 
notches approximately Vs" in depth. If 
this is not available an ordinary plas- 
terer's trowel can be notched and will 
be found satisfactory. 

52. Question. How should the 
Presdwood panel be placed in posi- 
tion? 

Answer. When the panel is first placed 
into position it should be done with a 



slight circular motion in order to work 
the adhesive well into the screen surface 
of the board as well as the base to which 
it is applied. 

53. Question, How long should 
shoring or bracing he Left in posi- 
tion? 

Answer. Approximately 12 hours, or at 
least overnight. 

54. Question, What adhesives have 
been found most satisfactory? 

Answer, Masonite Presdstik has been 
developed for the purpose. Alternative- 
ly any high grade waterproof linoleum 
cement mav be used. 

55. Question, When installing 
Masonite Tempered Presdwood to 
the walls of a bathroom, laundry or 
factory, where excessive humidity is 
present or exposed to weather, what 
is the first precaution to take? 

Answer. It is imperative that the 
board be pre-expanded, 

56. Question. Can adhesive cement 
he applied over a wet or damp sur- 
face? 

Anstver. No. The base to which the 
panel is to be applied as well as the 
screen side of Presdwood must be dry. 

57. Question. When the screen side 
has been soaked ^^ith water for pre- 
expanding, will it not leave a wet sur- 
face for the adhesive? 

Answer, No. Under normal conditions, 
24 hours is sufficient time to allow for 
the evaporation of water, leaving the 
screen side dry. 



^14 19- 





Construction plans of this automobile sales- 
room and service station specified 3/16" 
Tempered Presdwood ior all eicterior sur- 
faces. The Masonite Tempered Presdwood 
panels were applied to strapping over 
brick and painted. Wood strips painted 
red provided a suitable joint treatment. 



This strikingly modern black and silver 
store front features an application of 
Masonite Tempered Presdwood with a 
metal moulding joint treatment. The 24" x 
24" blocks have a baked glossy finish tho' 
adds distinctive appearance and assure 
years of trouble-free service. 




yaCttt^ AND ;4«MCe<i^ 



58. Question* How can the joints of 
Presdwood panels be treated? 

Answer, Edges may be bevelled to em- 
phasize the joint. Panel effects can be 
obtained by covering the joint with 
narrow strips of Presdwood in various 
widths superimposing one upon the 
other, 01' by using wood, metal or 
plastic mouldings. Metal mouldings are 
also extensively used for decorative 
purposes. 

59. Question, Is it necessary to 
waterproof the joints of Presdwood? 

Ansiver. No. Because Presdwood 
should never be used in places where 
the humidity is so great that water- 
proofing the joints is necessary. 

60. Question, Is it possible to make 
a flush joint to obtain a smooth and 
unbroken surface? 

Answer, It is difficult to make a satis- 
factory flush joint and is not ordinarily 
recommended. (See Question No. 73). 

61. Questions, Should panels be 
butted tight as joints? 

Answer, No. Just bring panels to mod- 
erate contact. Do not spring or force 
into place. • 

62. Question, How can joints be 
treated? 

Answer, Edges of board may be butted, 
bevelled to form a V-joint, or metal, 



plastic, Presdwood or wood moulding 
may be used to cover the joint. (See 
Questions Nos. 72, 73, 82 for method of 
joint treatment) . 

63. Question, What is the best 
method for bevelling edges? 

Answer, For Presdwoods use an ordi- 
nary carpenter's plane, sand paper 
block, power saw or special bevelling 
tool (New Stanley Nos. 193A, 194 and 
195). 



64. Question. How should exterior 
angles he treated? 

Answer. The four usual methods are 
as follows: 

(1) Mitre corner 

(2) Metal corner 

(3) Wood corner 

(4) Plastic corners 

65. Question, How can interior 

angles be treated? 

Answer, There are two methods^ one is 
to use metal, wood or plastic moulding 
and the other is to butt one panel 
against the other. Before butting the 
panel against the corner, make sure 
that the edge of the panel conforms to 
the irregularity of the wall line. This 
can be done with a drawing compass, 
dividers, or scribing tool. 




iL*i« 



^ ]6}§^ 



Sxteni^n APPLICATION <^ 



66. Question, Is Tempered Presd- 
wood recommeaded for outside use? 
Ansuer. For outside use Tempered 
Presdwood is recommended. 

67. Question. How should a wall be 
prepared to receive Tempered 
Presdwood for outside application? 

Answer, When %" or 3/16" Tempered 
Presdwood is used, solid backing must 
be provided and the panels must be 
secured to the backing with waterproof 
cement as described in Questions Nos. 
50 and 51, then properly nailed as in 
Questions No. 38, 39 and 40. When the 
panels are y^" or 5/16" thick they can 
be applied direct to strapping or 
studding, using waterproof cement on 
studs, and nailing. The edges should 
be protected with grey caulking com- 
pound (see Question No. 72) . 

- 

68- Question, What is the most im- 
portant factor when Tempered 
Presdwood Is lo be used for exterior 
purposes? 

Answer, Make sure that the board has 
been properly pre-expanded, as describ- 
ed on page 10. 

69. Question, Should panels be fit- 
led before or after pre-expanding? 

Answer, It is advisable to cut panels 
to conform with the design and do all 
necessary fitting after the panels have 
been pre-expanded. 

70. Question, How should the panels 
be applied? 



Answer, After fitting the panels, spread 
the adhesive over the entire screen 
surface of the board with a saw tooth 
trowel. (See Questions No. 50 and 51) 
squeeze the panels in place, nail the 
panels in place, nail the panels where- 
ever possible, or use bracing or shoring. 

71. Question, How can the joints be 
treated ? 

Answer, Joints for outside use could 
be treated with a bevel edge, flush 
joint, or metal mouldings. 

72. Question, How can a bevelled 
joint be made waterproof? 

Answer, By buttering the edge of the 
screen side with grey caulking com- 
pound after the adhesive has been 
placed over the entire screen surface. 
The grey caulking compound only 
needs to extend from l^" to %" over 
the edge of the screen side. Sufiicient 
caulking compound should be used so 
that the compound will ooze through 
the joints when the panels are in posi- 
tion; this excess is wiped off with a rag. 

73. Question, How should a flush 
joint be treated? 

Answer, It is advisable to leave the 
panels approximately Vs" apart. The 
face of the panel has to be rabetted 
1/16" deep and %" from the edge, 
making a recess of 1/16" x iV^", when 
the two panels are placed side by side 
with the %" space in between. The 
panels should be securely nailed in the 
recess, using galvanized 1^" box nails. 
The recess should be filled with Swedish 



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nritlT — -r "i^:^ v,^*;_ ; — -m5 it tc 
libe jonft te^wsrds tike ceatie «£ i:z-e 

-i^ e(%e5 j,r-f lns& "wrtli ihe lice of :^^ 
^?ffi35!cL oz : :<> not Leave anv 




T&e tufted Sl- 




n.'^iTs 



■- Tz- zs 







t tke 



.:j. 



m.- 



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titioas i.^ 



heflkd 



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Hf T?^ 



82. Question, How should joints be 
treated with metal mouldings for 
outside use? 

Answer, The slot of the metal mould- 
ing must be filled with grey caulking 
compound. As in most store front work, 
panels are fairly small, it is advisable 
not to nail the Masonite Tempered 
Presdwood panels to the base, but de- 
pend entirely on the metal mouldings, 
and the glue to hold them in place, 
thereby providing easy removal when 
the panels have to be repainted. 

83. Question, Can Tempered Presd- 



wood be left in natural condition 
when used for exterior work? 

Anstver, It is not recommended to 
leave Masonite Tempered Presdwood 
in its natural condition when exposed 
to the elements. It should be painted, 
varnished, lacquered or enamelled. 

84. Question, Why is it recom- 
mended to paint Masonite Tempered 
Presdwood when used for exterior 
application? 

Answer, Because it is a wood product 
and should be protected and treated 
as such. 




7<& APPLICATION ^ 





85. Question, Should Temprlile be advisable that the nails be galvanized 
pre-expanded before application? or cadmium plated. 



Answer^ Yes — (See page 10). 

86. Question, How should Temprtile 
be applied? 

Anstcer* By using an approved mastic 
or cement also nailing. (See Questions 
No. 48 to 57 also 88). 

87. Question, What kind of nails 
should be used? 

Answer, When nails are exposed, 1%" 
16-gauge casing head nails are recom- 
mended. It is also advisable to have 
the nails cement or resin coated, as this 
will increase the holding power. Where 
excessive humidity is present, it is 



88. Question, Where should nails he 
driven when applying Temprtile? 
Should they be countersunk? 

Ansiver, Nails should be driven vertic- 
ally into the intersection of score lines, 
using a nail set to drive the head of 
the nails flush with the bottom of the 
groove. The nails should not be counter- 
sunk, 

89. Question, Should, the joints be 
made waterproof? 

Answer, Yes, all joints in Temprtile 
should be made waterproof where there 
is an excessive amount of moisture such 
as in showers, steam rooms, etc. 



1 1 



\ 



4lQ> 




In this eif iciently planned, streamlined 
kitchen Masonite Presdwood Temprtile pro- 
vides a most attractive finish for the lower 
walls- The upper walls and ceiling feature 
Tempered Presdwood panels with high 
gloss enamel finish. Black Tempered 
Presdwood is used for table top and sink. 



Modern styling in this spacious bath-room 
centres around a bath recess of colorful, 
tile-like Masonite Presdwood Temprtile 
with white score lines. Convenient flank- 
ing shelves and upper walls utilize Tem- 
pered Presdwood panels painted white 
and trimmed with aluminum mouldings. 




90. Question, How can this be done? 

Answer^ By buttering the edge of the 
screen side with grey caulking com- 
pound so that when pressed into posi- 
tion the caulking compound will ex- 
trude through the joint and the excess 
can be wiped off with a clean rag. 



91. Question, How should metal or 
plastic mouldings be installed to be 
waterproof? 

Ansiver, When slotted metal or plastic 
mouldings are used, before inserting 
the Masonite Presdwood Temprtile in- 
to the slot the slot should be filled with 
grey caulking compound. The surplus 
should be wiped off. 

92. Question. Is it always necessary 
to install metal mouldings as refer- 
red to in Question No. 91? 

Answer, No, it is not necessary to use 
grey caulking compound every time 
metal or plastic mouldings are used — 
only where excessive humidity or water 
is present. 

93. Question, How and where should 
adhesive be applied? 

Answer. It is advisable to use adhesive 
wherever possible. Adhesive should be 
applied to the screen side of the panel 
using a saw tooth trowel as referred to 
in Question No. 51. 

94. Question, Temprtile is sold in 
large sheets. How should it be cut 
to best advantage? 

Answer, Cut the largest sections re- 
quired first, the surplus pieces can be 
used on the wall where there is a 
window. This is advisable because that 
wall is more or less in the shadow and 
the joints will be less noticeable. 



95. Question, How should you pro- 
ceed with the installation of Mason- 
ite Presdwood Temprtile? 

Answer, First, establish the high point 
of the floor, as very seldom floors are 
found to be level. From that high point, 
measure the height of the dado in 
accordance with the design, which may 
varv from 3' to 4'. From that point 
establish a horizontal line with a level 
around the room. 

96. Question. Can the work be laid 
out by taking any line parallel to the 

floor? 

Ansiver. This should not be done with- 
out ascertaining that the floor is level, 
which is seldom the case. 

97. Question, In an old building, 
is it advisable to remove the base 
board and place Masonite Presd- 
wood Temprtile behind the base? 

Ansiver. In most cases in old buildings, 
the wood trim is completely dried out, 
with the result that it is very brittle 
and almost impossible to remove with- 
out splitting and breaking the trim. 
Therefore, it is advisable to fit the 
Masonite Presdwood Temprtile to the 
top of the base. 

98. Question, Masonite Presdwood 
Temprtile has been installed and the 
panels are badly buckled. What was 
the cause? 

Answer, The base to which the Mason- 
ite Presdwood Temprtile was applied 
has warped, or the applicator neglected 
to pre-expand the Temprtile before 
installation. 

99. Question. How can this job, as 
referred to in Question No. 98 be 
remedied? 



I 



J 



<n^ 



Answer. Punch the nails through the 
Masonite Presd^yood Temprtile with 
your nail set and remove the panels. If 
the panels have been glued, it may be 
necessary to insert putty knife or a 
wide .chisel between the base and the 
Temprtile to break the bond. Remove 
all foreign material from the screen side 
of the Temprtile. Scrub the screen side 
with clean water, placing panels screen 
to screen with a film of water in be- 
tween, from 12 to 24 hours. Then re-fit 
and re-install panels. Before re-install- 
ing panels make sure base is true, level 
and plumb, shim.ming if necessary. 

100. Question. Are any special tools 
required to cut Masonite Temprtile? 

Answer. Ordinary carpenters tools such 
as a fine tooth saw and plane are the 
only tools required to cut and fit 
Masonite Presdwood Temprtile. 

101. Question. How should Mason- 
ite Presdwood Temprtile be cut to 
conceal joints between panels* 



Answer. Panels should never be cut 
through the centre of the groove or 
score line but close to the score line 
on either sidd, depending on the posi- 
tion of the score line on the adjoining 
panel, then with the use of a plane, 
bring cut to a feather edge. This 
method will ensure a clean and almost 
imperceptible joint. Correct methods of 
sawing the panel are clearly shown In 
the sketches below. Cut Masonite 
Presdwood Temprtile with a fine tooth 
saw. Always cut it on the face or the 
right side of the panel. Do not drag the 
saw on the upward stroke. 



SAW CUT 




f//////////W§ K///////4 



SHADED SECTION TO BE CUT TO FEATHER 
EDGE WITH HAND PLANE 



/4^€n4€ttde 'Pe^ifoxmen. 



^MODERN INDUSTRY 

One of the miracles of modem industry is that new ways are always 
being found to make better products at lower cost. This helps explain 
the rapidly increasing use of Masonite Presdwoods by manufacturers 
everywhere. Whether you use it by itself, or fabricate it in combina- 
tion with other materials, you'll find this "Wonder Wood of a 
Thousand Uses" on efficient, economical and versatile performer. 

You probably have many uses for a wood fibre hordboord that 
combines greaf strength with iigh^ weight Presdwoods ore inexpen- 
sive, easy to work, stands up under constant use and efficiently re- 
places other materials. Grcdnless, knotless, smooth, Presdwoods resist 
moisture, and will not split, check or crack when properly oppHed. 



<n^ 



P<lCHti«tf AND ^mUActta 



'Pn€4d(imod^ 



: 




102. Question, Is special paint re- 
quired to finish Presdwood? 

Answer^ Most paint manufacturers 
have specially prepared primers and 
sealers for Masonite Presdwoods for 
inside and outside use. Apply one coat 
of the recommended sealer. This may 
be applied with a brush or spray. Allow 
the surface to dry, then sandpaper 
lightly and finish with two coats of 
high-grade inside or outside paint. 

103. Question, Can Masonite Presd- 
wood be finished in the natural con- 
dition ? 

Answer, Masonite can be left in its 
natural finish with the use of two coats 
of varnish. 

104. Question, How should this 
varnish be applied? 

Anstcer, A high-grade varnish should 
be used. The varnish should be ap- 
plied in two coats, the first coat should 
be reduced with 20% turpentine and 
the second coat should be applied 

without being reduced. 

105. Question, Is there any differ- 
ent procedure when painting Ma- 
sonite Tempered Presdwood for out- 
side use? 

Anaicer, Use the proper sealer recom- 
mended for outside application and 
finish with two coats of high-grade 
outside prepared paint. This will give 
a very satisfactory job. 



106. Question, Can lacquer or Duco 
be used satisfactorily with Presd- 
wood? 

Anstver, Lacquer or Duco will give a 
high-gloss and durable finish to Presd- 
wood. It is understood, of course, that 
with lacquer or Duco, the proper 
under-coating should be used. 

107. Question, Can Masonite Presd- 
wood Temprtile be used in showers, 
or steamrooms without the protec- 
tion of paint? 

Answer, No. As Masonite Presdwood 
Temprtile is a wood product, it re- 
quires a protective coating of varnish, 
paint, enamel, Duco or lacquer, to 
withstand the excessive amount of 
water and to give lasting service. 

108. Question, What methods are 
recommended to stripe Masonite 
Presdwood Temprtile? 

Answer, The two most common 
methods are: ' 

(1) The use of a striping brush. This 
brush has specially long bristles that 
stay in the score lines. 

(2) The use of a Beugler Striping 
Tool. This consists of a cylinder with 
a piston which presses the striping 
paint against a small wheel as it is 
guided along the score line. 

109. Question, If surfaces of Ma- 
sonite Presdwood have been painted^ 
is it possible to use lacquer or Duco 
over these surfaces when 
ing? Or vice versa? 



k 



-6(23 ^ 




The simple appeal of this Masonite Presdwood occa- 
sional table has won it many friends. Built in three 
parts and lacquered in contrasting color-tones, the 
table is shipped flat and easily assembled by user. 



The cabinet of this nationally known radio-phonograph 
is open to display the interior construction of Masonite 
Presdwood. These sturdy boards lend themselves to 
speedy and economical quantity production methods. 





The ice refrigercrtor p: 
entirely from Masonit 
baked finishes possil 
result in glowing bet 



Masonite Tempered Presdwood, in the 1/8" tl 
appUed over wood framing, was used for i 
every surface of this modern stream lined desk, 
ing the top, drawer fronts, drawer bottoms and c 




■ ' ' 




I above is fabricated almost 
sdwoods. The glass-smooth, 
'th these versatile products 
rad non-chipping durability. 



ss 

ly 
d- 





Precision die-cutting and punch press operations possible in the 
fabrication of Presdwoods permit minimum.-cost quantity produc- 
tion of a variety of intricate shapes and pieces. Shown here are 
typical small parts which have been fabricated from various 
Masonite Presdwoods — the tough, smooth, grainless hardboaids. 



FOR THE PRODUCT DESIGNER 

In furniture, table tops, display counters, cabinets, kitchen, bath- 
room and office equipment — in thousands of products — Masonite 
Presdwoods offer you extra quality, strength, beauty, salability. 



' : : ■ :.' _ 



Answer. If the surface has been 
painted, it will be necessary to remove 
all paint before applying lacquer or 
Duco as the vehicle of these products 
act as a paint remover. If the surface 
has already been treated with Duco 
or lacquer it Is possible to apply ordi- 



nary standard paint without removing 
either Duco or lacquer. It is necessary, 
however, to rub the surface of Mason- 
ite Presdwood Temprtile with sand- 
paper or steel wool so as to cut the 
high-gloss finish and give a better ad- 
hering surface for the paint. 



"RecotMHMded SURFACE SEALERS 



Faint Manufacturers 

Benjamin Moore & Co. Ltd 

Berry Brothers 



Brandram-Henderson Ltd 

Canadian Industries Ltd 



Canada Paint Co. Ltd 



Glidden Company 



Hobbs Glass Ltd — 



Imperial Varnish Co. Ltd. 



International Fibre Board Limited 



Lowe Brothers 



Martin Senour Co. Ltd. 

Murphy Paint Co. Limited 



Ottawa Paint Works Ltd^ 

Pratt & Lambert „. 

Ueardon Company Ltd 



Scarfe & Co. Ltd. 



Sherwin Williams 



Thorp-Hambrock Co. Limited 



Inside 

Moore's Primer 
Sealer 

Berrycraft Wall 
Primer and Sealer 

B-H Filseal 

DUX Primer 
Surfacer 

Special Sealer 
No. 27827 

No. 44 Sealer 

Pittsburgh 

6-1 Wall Primer 

E295 White 

Primer 

- Masonite Primer 
and Sealer 

, No. 4714 Sealer 

No. lODeco-Mix 

. Petal-Tone 
Primer-Sealer 

* Primer Sealer 

. No. 83 Sealer 

. Modex Casein Paint 
(one-coat finish) 
No primer required 

. No. 4430 Primer 
Sealer 

. Tri-Seal 



Outside 

Moorwhite Primer 

Sub-coat Exterior 
Primer 

B-H Filseal 

Old English 
Paint Oil 

Special Sealer 
No. 27827 

Spedine Clear 

Sealer 

Pittsburgh 

Sun Proof Primer 

E295 White 
Primer 

Masonite Primer 
and Sealer 

No. 4714 Sealer 

Key-Kote 

Pre-Cote 
Exterior Primer 

Primer Sealer 

P.L. No. 305 



No. 4430 Primer 
Sealer 

Wall Primer 
Sealer 



Thorham Sure-Grip Thorham Cele-Rite 
Primer Exterior Undercoater 



<^el^ 



METHODS OF 





'^^te^cUwMd^ 



110. Que&iioiu How many methods 
are there of bending Masonite Presd- 
woods? 

Answer. Three. Masonite Presdwoods 
can be bent dry, wet, and wet with heat. 

111. Question, Can Black Temper- 
ed Masonite be bent as easily as 
Tempered Presdwood? 

Answer. Black Tempered Presdwood 
will not bend as readily as Tempered 
Presdwood and therefore can not be 
bent to as small a radius as is pre- 
scribed for Tempered Presdwood. 

112. Question. Explain the differ- 
ent methods of bending Masonite 
Presdwoods ? 

Answer. If bending Masonite Tem- 
pered or Untempered Presdwood over 
a form which has a radius of approxi- 
mately 18", it is not necessary to wet 
the board. Nail the edge of the panel 
securely in place and slowly bring the 
Masonite Presdwood into position 
against the wood framing. 

If a 12" radius is required, the Tem- 
pered or Untempered Presdwood 
should be completely immersed in a 
tank of water for 24 hours. The board 
should be bent over a form of slightly 
smaller radius than required and 
clamped in that position until dry. 
When the clamps are removed the 
board will have a permanent set, the 
spring-back will be slight. 

For a radius of 3" to 6", it is advisable 
to apply heat to the wet board while 



bending. The panel should be thor- 
oughly wet as instructed in previous 
paragraph. The heat is then applied 
with the use of a sheet of galvanized 
iron placed over the Presdwood, both 
Presdwood and galvanized iron being 
clamped to the frame at one end. 
Move the flame of the blow torch 
against the galvanized iron, while 
gradually bringing the galvanized iron 
and the Presdwood over the form. In 
this manner, the heat of the flame will 
pass through the galvanized iron to 
the Presdwood, soften the lignin of the 
fibres, thereby making the board more 
flexible. When the curvature has been 
completed, clamp the Presdwood and 
galvanized iron in position until dry. 

If steam pipes are available with which 
to heat the form, the blow torch is 

unnecessary. 

113. Question. How long should 
Masonite Presdwood be left on the 
form? 

Answer. To have a permanent set it 
should be left until perfectly dry. This 
will take an average of twelve hours. 

114. Question, Can anything be 
done to accelerate the drying time? 

Answer. Yes, if artificial heat is avail- 
able, the drying time can be reduced 
considerably. 

115. Question. If no tank is avail- 
able, in which to submerge the board 



I- 



<27^ 



for soaking prior to bending, vhat 
other method can be used? 

Anstcer, In this case, the best method 
is to scrub the screen side with water, 
place burlap sacks, soaked with water, 
over the screen side, and keep these 
sacks soaked with water for a period 
of 24 hours or more. 

116. Question, Why is the water al- 
ways applied to the screen side only? 

Answer, The screen side has broken 
fibres leaving a more porous surface 
than the smooth glass-like face of the 
board. 



117, Question, Is the surface of the 
panel injured in the bending pro- 
cess? 

Answer. If care is taken in bending 
the board, by applying the heat pro- 
perly or by not forcing it over the form 
too quickly, the surface will not be 
broken or cracked. 

118. Question, Will the bent surface 
of Masonite Presdwood take paint as 
readily as the flat surface? 

Answer, As the surface has not been 
injured, there is no noticeable differ- 
ence in the paint absorption between 
the flat and bent surfaces. 



USE THE RIGHT BOARD 
FOR THE RIGHT JOB 



^«^V MASONITE Pxoducu, Si^.etc. 



Tempered Presdwood 

*M" 4 x 3 and 4 s 4 

y^' 4 s 6, 4 X 8, 4 X 10, 4 X 12, 4 X 16 
•S/ie" 4 X 3 and 4 s 4 
3/16" 4 X 6, 4 X 8, 4 X 10, 4 X 12. 4 X 16 
V 4 X 8 and 4 x 16 
5/16" 4 X 8and4x 16 

Black Tempered Presdwood 

3/^" 4 X 8 and 4 X 16 only 
3/16*4 X 8 and 4 X 16 only 
i" 4 X 8 and 4 X 16 only 
5/16" 4 X Sand 4 X 16 only 



Presdwood Temprtile 

H" 4 s 8 and 4 X 16 only 
3/16" 4 s 8 and 4 X 16 only 

Tempered Flooring 

Sold in packages of 15 sheets only. 
3/16" Size llfx£3j"only 
3/16" Size 231" x 47" only 

Untempered Presdwood 

*H* 4 s 3 and 4 X 4 

J^' 4 X 6, 4 X 8, 4 X 10, 4 X 12, 4 X 16 
*3/16" 4 X 3 and 4 X 4 

3/16" 4 X 6, 4 X 8, 4 X 10, 4 X 12, 4 X 16 
J' 4 X 8 and 4 s 16 
5/16" 4 X 8 and 4 X 16 



♦The 4x3 ii\z,Q available when in stoct. 



<%%> 




Attractive, durable and economical Mason- 
ite Tempered Flooring will give years of 
sortisfactory service. Made in two standard 
sizes which permit several alternative pat- 
tern arrangements, Masonite Tempered 
Flooring is the same steel-strong product 
as time-tested Tempered Presdwood. 



The recreation room shown below^ features 
a Masonite Tempered Flooring installation. 

Tempered for hardness it meets the de- 
mand for distinctive beauty, long life, low- 
cost and easy maintenance. Tempered 
Flooring is visible evidence of quality, 
utility and modern streamlined efficiency. 




APPLICATION ol 




^e*pt^i€necC^C(^onuta, 



119. Question. Where can the use 
of Masonite Tempered Flooring be 
recoramended? 

Answer, In dance halls, auditoriums, 
offices, clubs, schools, departmental 
stores and homes. It is not recom- 
mended as floor covering in bathrooms, 
washrooms or kitchens. 

120< Question, What are the advan- 
tages of Masonite Tempered Floor- 
ing over similar materials? 

Anstcer, Ease of installation and re- 
pairs, low cost of up-keep, durability. 

121. Question, Can Masonite Tem- 
pered Flooring be placed over any 
kind of sub-base? 

Answer. It can be installed over a 
wood or concrete base. The wood base 
or sub-flooring is the easiest over 
which Masonite Tempered Flooring 
can be applied, and is highly recom- 
mended. The wood sub-base must be 
free from paint, varnish, grease or 
other foreign substances. The sub- 
floor must be level. For application 
over concrete write for detailed speci- 
fication. 

122. Question. How can a worn-out 
sub-floor be levelled and prepared 
to receive Masonite Tempered Floor- 
ing? 

Answer, Sand the sub-floor smooth. 
Replace the worn-out sections or level 
with Braco Mastic. 

123. Question, What is Braco 
MaMic ? 



Answer, Braco Mastic consists of 1 
part asbestos fibres mixed with 2% 
parts shaper sand, water to dampen 
and 2 parts Braco Cl3 HPC. Mix to 
uniform color and spread with a steel 
trowel. Allow to stand for 12 hours. 
See facing page. 

124. Question. How should Mason- 
ite Tempered Flooring be applied? 

Anstver. The flooring tile can be 
cemented to the sub-base, nailed or a 
combination of glueing and nails may 
be used. 

125. Question, Which is the most 
practical method of installing 
Masonite Tempered Flooring? 

Answer, The most widely used method 
is a combination of adhesive and nails. 
The adhesive recommended is Mason- 
ite cement, Wolverine Cement or other 
equally approved product. Spread the 
adhesive over the sub-base with a 
saw-tooth trowel, place the Masonite 
Tempered Flooring in position and 
place six nails in each tile, 11%" x 
23%", one nail at each corner and one 
in the centre of each long edge. The 
nails should be placed about 1%" from 
the edges of the tile. Do not counter- 
sink the nails but drive the nail home 
with the ball of the hammer. Use 1^/4" 
to IV2" casing head, 15 or 16-gauge 
nail. 

126. Question, How should Mason- 
ite Tempered Flooring be installed 
using adhesive only? 



-<( 30)^ 





.-'^■- 



No- 1 Spread adhesive on sub-floor, using saw- 
too;h troweh ' 




No, 3 Immediately the tile has been set in mastic, 
drive one nail securely into each corner and 
one midway of each long edge about 1-|" 
from edge. 




No. 5 Surfaces that are too worn in spots to sand 
or level must be cut out and replaced, or 
levelled with Braco mastic. 




No- 2 Firmly embed tile in mastic. Do not slide into 
position- 




No. 4 See that all tiles are in proper alignment 
and squared from centre of room. 



How to mix BRACO Mastic for filling 
up low spots (see illustration No. 5) 

• Mix 1 part of asbestos fibres thoroughly with 2-| 
parts of clean, sharp sand, then add sufficient water 
to dampen. Add 2 parts of Braco C-13-HPC and mix 
mass lo uniform color. Sprinkle spots on floor to be 
treated with clean water and spread mastic "with 
steel troweL Screed the surface with a straight edge 
so as to level the mastic with surrounding floor. Dust 
the treated surface, while wet, with Portland Cement, 
and lightly rub the cement into the mastic with a 
steel troweL The cement will help to harden the 
Braco coating. Allow the Braco Mastic to set lor 12 
hours before applying the MfiSONITE Flooring. 

^31 ^ 



Answer, Spread the adhesive over the 
sub-floor using a saw tooth trowel. 
Place the flooring tile in position and 
hold them until the glue is set, using 
small blocks and finishing nails at each 
corner of the blocks. After 24 hours 
remove the nails and blocks. 

127. Question. How should Mason- 
ite Tempered Flooring be installed 
using nails only? 

Answer, Place the flooring tiles in 
position and drive 28 casing head nails 
1^4" to 1%" Jong, 16-gauge in each 
tile. Seven along the 2 long edges IV2" 
from the edge about sy^' apart and 2 
rows of nails parallel to the long edge 
about 3" away from the rows along the 
edges. Drive the nails home with the 
ball of the hammer but do not counter- 
sink the nails. 

128. Question, Should Masonite 
Tempered Flooring be pre- 
expanded? 

Answer, It is not only advisable but 
necessary to pre-expand Tempered 
Flooring. The only exception is in old 
homes where the sub-floor is very dry 
lumber, the rooms are small, and no 
dampness is present in the building. 

129. Question, How should Mason- 
ite Tempered Flooring be pre- 
expand ed? 



Answer, Scrub the screen side of the 
tiles with clear water or dip the tiles 
for a few seconds in a basin or tub of 
clean water. Stack them on a level 
surface screen to screen with the film 
of water between them for at least 24 
hours. (See detailed instructions on 
page 10) . 

130. Question, How should the 
Masonite Tempered Flooring be 
finished after it haa been installed? 

Answer, As soon as the floor has been 
laid, all surface dust must be removed 
and a generous coating of hard wax 
applied and then polish. (Do not use 
liquid wax) . An electrical polisher, if 
available, is recommended. 

131. Question. How should Mason- 
ite Tempered Flooring be main- 
tained ? 

Answer, The upkeep of Masonite 
Tempered Flooring Is very simple. Do 
not scrub Masonite Tempered Flooring 
—just a damp mopping of the surface 
and a light wiping is all that is neces- 
sary. If the floor has become very 
dirty, a neutral soap should be used 
when mopping. In any case, flooding 
the floor must be avoided. Masonite 
Tempered Floors should be finished by 
waxing and polishing as often as neces- 
sary and always after cleaning with 
neutral soap. 




mcucmie 



PRESDWOODS 



■ lCiail4(D II^BI Htl-i 



^m^ 




CONCRETE FORM 'P%e^d6(Mcd 



132. Question. Name a few advan- 
tages of Masonite Concrete Forni 
Presdwood over other materials? 

Ansicer. Masonite Concrete Form 
Presdwood offers the advantage of a 
smoother surface to the concrete. It 
reduces the cost of forming. Minimizes 
the loss in lumber which would or- 
dinarily be completely spoiled by the 
contact with concrete. It gives more 
re-uses than other material on the 
market, hence reduces cost of concrete 
form work. It helps to reduce the ratio 
of water, therefore increasing th e 
strength of the concrete. It helps to 
thoroughly and completely hydrate the 
concrete. 

133. Question. Is ihe bending of 
Masonite Concrete Form Presdwood 
of great advantage in concrete form 
work? 

Answer, It is used to great advantage 
in concrete forms because reasonably 
small curves may be obtamed at far 
less cost than they can be obtained 
with other materials. 

134. Question, Why is it important 
to expand the Masonite Concrete 
Form Presdwood before installa- 
tion? 

Answer. It is important that the 
Concrete Form Presdwood be fully ex- 
panded before being placed in the 
forms or on the slab, as it necessary 
to butt the panels tightly in order to 
avoid fins which necessitate a lot of 
labour to remove. If the panels were 



not expanded fully before using, they 
would expand while concrete is being 
poured, cause undulations and make 



an unsightlv finish. 



135. Qtiestion. When should Con- 
crete Form Presdwood he greased? 

Ansiver, Masonite Concrete Form 
Presdwood panels should he greased as 
soon as they have been placed in the 
forms of the walls, columns, or beams. 
The deck should be mopped with a 
special grease just as soon as the panels 
have been installed. 

136. Question. What kind of grease 
shouhl he used? 

Answer, Aluminum stearate wiping 
grease obtainable from International 
Fibre Board Limited. 

137. Question. How should the 
wiping grease be applied to Masonite 
Concrete Form Presdwood? 

Ansiver. By dipping the waste into 
the grease, squeeze it out gently and 
mopping the surface of the Masonite 
Concrete Form Presdwood. ■Make sure 
that the entire surface of the Masonite 
Concrete Form Presdwood has been 
thoroughly coated with wiping grease. 

138. Question, What are the im- 
portant factors to watch in order to 
ensure a good job by using Masonite 
Concrete Form Presdwood? 

Ansiver, The success obtainable with 
the usL^ of ]Masonite Concrete Form 



<i 33 I* 



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Presdwood depends upon several things 
— the quality of the concrete — the 
amount of puddling the concrete has 
been given at the time it was placed 
in the form — the proper ratio of water, 
as too much water will cause a honey- 
comb appearance, dusty and weak con- 
crete. 

139. Question, How to avoid ridg- 
ing? 

Ansicer. By proper bracing of forms 
to prevent spreading of form lumber 
when concrete is poured in place. 
Never allow concrete to drop more 
than S' without using chutes, 

140. Question* Wliat is meant by a 
honey-comb appearance? 

Ansiver. A honey-comb appearance is 
minute air holes that are present on 
the underside of the slab or on the face 
of the walls, columns, and beams when 
the forms are removed. 

141. Question. How can a honev- 
coinlj appearance be avoided? 

Ansicer. Bv reducing the amount of 
water, by proper puddling when the 
concrete is placed in the forms or by 
using a vibrator. 

142. Question. What care should be 
taken when stripping the forms? 

Anstcer. The props should be gradu- 
ally removed and the panels should be 
brought down gently. Often the 
labourers will use unnecessary force 
and drop large sections to the floor 
beloAv, with the result that breakage 
occurs to the Masonite Concrete Form 
PresdAvood panels, and the edges are 
badly damaged. This necessitates re- 
moving the damaged edges with a 
power saw. making the panels that 
much smaller and increasing waste. As 
soon as panels are removed, immedi- 
ately pull out the nails by driving them 
back through the face of the board. 



Do not pull the nail heads through the 
board, as this method causes breakage 
and enlarges the holes. 

143* Question. Is it necessary to 
expand the board again before re- 
using it? 

Anstcer, If the forms which have been 
removed are going to be used again 
on another slab in the same building, 
it is not necessary to re-expand the 
board. 

144. Question. Should the board be 

cleaned I)efore re-using? 

Ansicer. As there is always a slight 
amount of dust which will adhere and 
form on the surface of the board when 
it has been removed, it is necessary to 
remove this dust and dirt with a fibre 
scrubbing brush. 

145. Question, How often should 
the boards be greased? 

Answer. ^lasonite Concrete Form 

Presdwood should be greased every 
time it is used, even though used on 
the same job. from slab to slab. After 
the dust has been removed and the 
boards have been placed in position, 
immediately grease in the same manner 
as described in Question No. 137. 

146. Question, When the job is 
completed what care should be taken 
of the Ma&onite Concrete Form 
Fre*dwood? 

Ansicer. Ail the dirt and dust should 
be removed. The panels should be 
stacked on end, 1" apart, to allow the 
air to circulate, for 24 to 48 hours, 
then piled away neatly in a warehouse 
for further use. 

147. Question, What is the weigbt 
of a cubic foot of concrete? 

Ansiver. The weight of a cubic foot of 
concrete is approximately 150 lbs. 



<»6^ 



148. Question. What should be the 
spacing of supports for Masonite 

Concrete Form Presdwood? 

Ansicer, The spacing of supports for 
Concrete Form Presdwood depends en- 
tirely on the load or the weight of the 
concrete that they have to carry. 

149. Question, Has the thickness of 
the wall any bearing on the lateral 
pressure of the concrete against the 
forms ? 

Answer, The thickness of the wall has 
no bearing, whatsoever, on the lateral 
pressure, e.g., whether the wall is one 
foot or four feet, the pressure is the 
same, providing the height of the pour 
is the same. 

150. Question, What is the purpose 
of the deflection and span charts 
shown on pages 34 and 35 and how 
are they used? 

Answer, To give maximum spacing 
between supports, using i/4" and 5/16" 
Masonite Concrete Form Presdwood. 

151. Question, How is the chart used 
to determine spacing of an 8" con- 
crete slab using 1/4" Masonite Con- 
crete Form Presdwood? 

Answer, The weight of concrete 8" 
thick is 100 lbs. plus a working load 
of 75 lbs., making a total weight of 
175 lbs. which the ^^" board has to 
carry. At the right band side of the 
chart locate the figure 175, follow the 
curve to the left until it meets the 
span line; from the deflection line move 
in a horizontal line to the left hand 
side of the chart, here you will read 8, 
this gives you in inches the spacing 



that may be safely allowed between 
the boards that support the Y^" Con- 
crete Form Presdwood. 

152. Question, If using 5/16" Con- 
crete Form Presdwood for the same 
problem as Question No. 151, what 
would be the spacing between the 
supports? 

Answer, Using the chart in the same 
manner the spacing between supports 

would be 10%". 

153. Question, How should 3/16" 
Concrete Form Presdwood he used? 

Answer, 3/16" should always be used 
against a solid backing whether for 
slabs, walls, columns or beams, 

154. Question, If the wrong kind of 
oil or wiping grease has been used 
what effect may it have on the con- 
crete? 

Answer, It may cause a dusty surface. 

155. Question, Is this dusty surface 
injurious to the concrete? 

Anstver, In most cases it has no effect 
on the strength of the concrete. It 
necessitates the removal of the dust 
if the exposed surface is to be painted. 

156. Question, How can the dusty 
surface be treated to receive paint? 

Answer, When a dusty surface is pre- 
sent, scrub the surface with clear 
water, or apply a solution consisting 
of 2% lbs. of Magnesium fluosilicate 
to one gallon of water. The latter 
method will not only remove the dust 
but will help harden the surface. 




itCliMllO MIOI MMt 



^37S^ 



LUSTROUS . .. PRECISION MADE 

SrfJSmdScmJL 

ALUMINUM TRIMS 

■ 

Gleaming, lustrous, aluminum trim . . . the utmost in moulding 
satisfaction. Durable, easy to bend and simple to clean, the wide 
range of modem designs comprise shapes for use with Presd- 
woods, plywood, tile-board, linoleum and other types of wall and 
floor coverings. The rich, high-quality appearance of International 
Aluminum Trims have a definite place and purpose in achieving 
modern interior and exterior decoration at moderate cost. 






CAPS 



NOSINGS 



COVES 



EDGINGS • CORNICES • DIVIDERS 

The Aluminum Trim with 100 Uses 
in Home, Office, Store & Industry 



Stairs 
Hotels 
Trailers 
Exhibits 
Kitchens 
Laundries 
Soda Bars 
Bath Tubs 



Refrigerators 
Kitchen Units 
Store Fixtures 
Powder Rooms 
Exterior Finish 

Window Displays 
Advertising Signs 
Recreation Rooms 



Bathrooms 

Bus Bodies 
Show Cases 
Restaurants 
Store Fronts 
Drain Boards 
Food Markets 
Display Pieces 



Write for a copy of the new illustrated price list featuring the complete line of 
International Aluminum Trims, each profile shown actual size. Mailed post free 
on request to International Fibre Board Limited, Gatineau, Quebec, 

NOTE: The aluminum m.oulding projUes ahavm <m facing page 

are Hightly less than acttud size. 

4 38^ 



« 



THE MODERN, DECORATIVE TRIM 



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Modern to the minute this shoe store re- 
flects style smartness, distinction, high 
quality and good taste. The large panels 
ol Masonite Presdwood, bent to form 
sweeping curves and painted an off-white, 
provide an excellent interior finish and 
pleasing background for the merchandise. 



This Masonite Tempered Presdwood in- 
stallcrtion in a food market demonstrates 
but one of many attractive effects achieved 
with this versatile product. The gleaming 
white glass-smooth walls and ceihng 
furnish an appropriate and sanitary in- 
terior finish that is easy to keep clean* 




;4i^iA^x4et<Mi LIST OF USES ^ 

'fH^4«*Ute BRAND ^lodlCCti^ 



\ 



A 

Abutments 

Additions 

Administration Bldgs. 

Airplane Hangars 

Ail-Purpose Cabinets 

Alterations 

Animal Breeding Houses 

Apiaries 

Apartment Houses 

Approaches 

Cement 

Bridge 
Aqueducts 

Cement 
Attic Lining 
Auto Trailers 
Awnings 

B 

Background 

Store Windows 

Theatre Settings 
Band Stands 
Barn Doors 
Barn Lining 
Barn Roofs 
Barns 

Calf 

Cattle 

Cow 

General 

Hay 

Horse 

Machinery 

Milking 

Sheep 

Tobacco 

Tractor 

Wagon 

Wintering 
Barn Siding 
Bath Mirrors 
Bathroom Cabinets 
Bathroom Tile 
Bathing Houses 

Beamed Ceilings 
Bee Cases 
Beehives 
Bench Tops 



Benches 
Cement 
Factory 

Manual Training 
Wash 

Work 
Billiard Tables 
Bins 

Bird Houses 
Blackboards 
Boards 

Bin 

Shelves 

Sign 

Boat Landings 
Cement 

Boat Lumber 
Boats 

Row Boats 

Skiffs 

Outboard Motor Boats 

Cabin Panelling 
Bookcases 
Book Covers 
Bookshelves 
Booths 
Boxes 

Honey 

Play 

Wagon 

Box Trucks 
Factories 
Stores 

Bread Boards 
Breakfast Nooks 
Bridge Approaches 
Cement 

Bridges 

Cement 
Brooder Coops 
Brooder Houses 
Broom Cabinets 

Built-in 
Buffets 
Buildings 

Administration 

Animal 

Apartment 

Barns 

Bathing Houses 

Brooder Houses 

^ 41 )■> 



Bungalows 
Bunk Houses 
Cabins 
Calf Barns 

Cattle Barns 
Cattle Sheds 
Churches 
City Dwellings 
Club Houses 
Combine Harvester 

Sheds 
Community Houses 
Corn Cribs 
Cottages . 
Country Clubs . ■ 
County Fair 
Cow Barns 
Cow Sheds 
Dairy Buildings 
Duplex Dwellings 
Factory Buildings 
Farm Houses 
Feed Mills 
Flat Buildings 
Garages (Private) 
Garages (Public) 

Garden Houses 
General Barns 

Grain Barns 
Grain Bins 

Grain Cribs 
Grain Elevators 
Grain Mills 
Granaries 
Greenhouses 
Grist Mills 
Hay Bams 
Hay Feeding Barns 
Hay Sheds 
Hot Houses 
Hunting Lodges 
Ice Houses 
Implement Sheds 
Knock-down Sheds 
Ladder Sheds 
Laying Houses 
Machine Sheds 
Manure Sheds 
Meat Curing Houses 
Milking Barns 
Milk Houses 
Milking Sheds 
Mountain Cabins 



i: ' I ■ - J "... . 



/ItfiA^xitUciU ^M (^ 'U4CL 



CONTINUED 



I 



A 



Buildings — Continued. 

Office Buildings 

Oil Houses 

Oil Sheds 

Outhouses 

Pigeon Houses 

Play Houses 

Portable Buildings 

Potato Houses 

Poultry Houses 

Public Buildings 

Pump Sheds 

Range Sheds 

Range Shelters 

Recreation Buildings 

Sanitariums 

Sawdust Sheds 

Saw Mills 

Scale Houses 

Sheds 

Sheep Barns 

Sheep Sheds 

Smoke Houses 

Spreader Sheds 

Station Shelters 

Storage Houses 

Store Buildings 

Storm Shelters 

Straw Sheds 

Summer Cabins 

Summer Houses 

Tobacco Barns 

Tool Houses 

Tractor Barns 

Turkey Houses 

Vegetable Houses 

Wagon Bams 

Warehouses 

Wintering Barns 

Work Houses 
Built-in Furniture 
Built-in Window Seats 

■ 

C 

Cabinets 

All-Purpose 

Bathroom 

Broom 

Built-in 

Corner 

Counter 

Hanging 

Kitchen 

Linen 

Medicine 



Cabinets — Continued 

Shoe-Shine 

Storage 

Surface 

Telephone 

UtiUty 

Sink 

Unit 
Calendar Pads 
Calf Barns 
Camp Furniture 
Campers Equipment 
Car Material 

Railroad 

Street 
Cattle Barns 
Cattle Feeders 
Cattle Sheds ' 
Cedar Closet Lining 
Cellar Ceiling 
Cellar Doors 
Cellar Partitions 

Cement 

Abutments 

Amphitheatres 

Approaches 

Aquaria 

Aqueducts 

Arches 

Balconies 

Band Stands 

Barn Approaches 

Beams 

Bleachers 

Blocks 

Boat Landings 

Booths 

Boxes 

Bridges 

Bridge Approaches 

Bridge Walls 

Caissons 

Ceilings 

Chimneys 

Cisterns 

Corn Cribs 

Curb 

Fire Vaults 

Garbage Boxes 

Girders 

Ice Houses 
Chair Seats 
Chest of Drawers 
Chests 

Chicken Shelters 
China Cabinets 



Churches 

Chutes (Laundry) 
City DwelUngs 
Closet Lining 
Clothes Closets 
Club Houses 
Coffee Tables 
Combine Harvester 

Sheds 
Community Houses 
Concrete Form Lumber 
Concrete Post Moulds 
Coops 
Corn Cribs 
Corner Cabinets 
Cottages . 
Counter Cabinets 
County Fair Buildings 
Covers 

Tractor 

Trailer 

Truck 

Wagon 
Cow Sheds 
Crates 
Cribs 

Cupboard Doors 
Cupboards 
Cut Outs 

D 

Dadoes 

Dairies 

Dairy Barns 

Dairy Barn Equipment 

Dams 

Decorative Window 

Cornice 
Delivery Wacrons 

Desk Tops 
Die Stock 
Display Booths 
Display Frames 
Dog Kennels 
Doors 

Barn 

Cabinet 

Casement 

Cellar 

Combination 

Cupboard 

Flush 

Folding 

French 



II 



■^42> 



/tifriAieticcU uiM 0^71^14^. . , 



CONTINUED 



Doors- —Con tinned 


Food Trays 


Front 


Foundations 


Grain 


Front Doors 


Greenhouse 




Industrial 


G 


Interior 


^^^ 


Laminated 


Game Table 


Mirror 


Garage Buildings 


Office 


Garage Doors 


Poultry House 


Garage Lining 


Screen 


Garden Furniture 


Shed 


Garden Fence 


Silo 


Garden Houses 


Sliding 


Garden Nooks 


Store 


Grain Barns 


Storm 


Grain Bins 


Drawer Bottoms 


Grain Cribs 


Dumbwaiters 


Grain Elevators 


Duplex Houses 


Granaries 


Dwellings 


Grange Houses 


4_f 


Greenhouse . 


E 


Benches 


Doors 


Egg Crates 


Grit Hoppers 


Elevators 

4 




Enclosures 


H 


F 


Hall Seats 


- Hal Walls 


Factories 


Hanging Bookshelves 


Factory Buildings 


China Cases 


Farm Houses 


Cabinets 


Farm Wagons 


Hay Barns 


Feed Bins 


Hay Sheds 


Feed Boxes 


Hens' Nests 


Feeding Floors 


Hog leaders 


Fences 


Hog Houses 


Fire Screens 


■ Homeste.ids 


Fireplace Baskets 


Honey Boxes 


Fireplace Seats 


Horse Barns 


Fireplace Wood Baskets 


Hot Houses 


Fishing Cabins 


Houses 


Fixtures 


Animal Breeding 


Office 


Apartment 


Store 


Bathing 


Floats for Parades 


Brooder 


Floors 


Bunk 


Flooring 


Club 


Barn 


Community 


Lining 


Dairy 


Parquetry 


Duplex \ 


Floor Lining 


Farm 


Flower Boxes 


Garden 


Folding Chairs 


Grain 


Folding Doors 


Grange 


Folding Tables 


Greenhouses 


Folding Screens 


Hog 


< 


■igf 43 > 



Houses — Co n tin ued 

Hot 
Ice 

Meat Curing 
IVIilk 

Pigeon 

Play 

Potato 

Poultry 

Recreation 

Scale 

School 
Hunting Lodges 
Inventory Boards 

• 

I 

Ice Boxes 
Ice Houses 
Implement Sheds 
Incubators 
Inlaid Flooring 
Inside Lining 
Inside Walls 
Interior Doors 
Interior Finish 

K 

Kennels 

Kitchen Cabinets 
Kitchen Cupboards 
Knife Trays 
Knock-down Buildings 

L 

Ladder Sheds 
Lake Cottages 
Laminated Doors 
Lawn Benches 
Lawn Seats 
Lawn Swings 
Laying Houses 
Letter Racks 
Linen Cabinets 
Lining 

Ceiling 

Closets 

Floor 

Roof 

Siding 

Wall 
Loading Chutes 
Lodge Rooms 
Lodge Seats 



I 



. 



/4tfiA€i6€tuMl ^at o^ Ti^ei. , . , 



CONTINUED 



Lockers 
Lockerettes 

M 

Machine Sheds 
Magazine Racks 
Mail Boxes 
Manual Training 

Benches 
Manual Training 

Material 
Manure Sheds 
Manufacturing 

Buildings 
Meat Curing Houses 
Medicine Cabinet 

Doors 
Medicine Cabinets 
Medicine Shelves 
Milking Barns 
Milk Bottle 

Containers 
Milk Coolers 
Milk Houses 
Milk Sheds 
Milk & Package 

Receivers 
Mi 11 work 
Mirror Doors 
Motor Boats 

N 

New Tile Walls 

O 

Office Buildings 
Office Ceiling 
Office Desks 
Office Fixtures 
Office Lockers 
Office Partitions 
Office Walls 

Outhouses 
Ornamental Valances 

P 

Package Receivers 
Packing Boxes 
Panel Doors 
Panels 
Ceiling 

Case Goods 

Wall 



Panels — Continued 

Wainscoting 
Panel Strips 
Pantry Shelving 
Parade Floats 
Parquet Floors 
Partition Facing 
Partitions 

Cellar 

Factory 

Office 

Store 
Picture Frames 
Pigeon Houses 
Playground Equipment 
Playhouses 
Porch Enclosures 
Porch Blinds 
Porch Floors 
Porch Material 
Porch Seats 
Porch Swings 
Portable Buildings 
Portable Store Houses 
Potato Bins 
Potato Houses 
Presdwood 

Tempered 

Untempered 
Print Shop Equipment 
Public Buildings 
Pump Sheds 



R 

Rabbit Hutches 
Radiator Covers 
Radio Cabinets 
Range Feed Boxes 

Range Shelters 

Receivers 

Recreation Houses 

Refrigerators 

Remodelling 

Homes 

Offices 

Stores 
Rest Rooms 
Roadside Standa 
Roof Lining 



Root Cellars 
Roughage Feed Racka 
Row Boats 

Rubbish Containers 

S 

Sail Boats 

Sand Play Boxes 

Sand Boxes 

Scenic Panels 

School Houses 

School Seats 

Seats 

Self-Feeding Com Cribs 

Serving Trays 

Sewing Cabinets 

Sheathing 

Sheds 

Calf 

Cattle 

Coal 

Combine Harvester 

Cow 

Hay 

Horse 

Implement 
Ladder 
Limestone 
Machine 
Manure 
Milking 
Pump 
Range 
Sawdust 
Sheep 
Spreader 
Straw 
Tank 
Tool 
Tractor 
Truck 
Vegetable 
Wagon 
Wood 
Work 
Shelving 
Book 

Cupboard 

Cellar 

Clothes 

Pantry 
Sheep Sheds 
Shipping Containers 
Shoe Shine Units 

Built-in 

Portable 



^44)9- 



;4(pA4Si4€t€Ml .^Ut (>^ Tt^ei. , 



CONTINUED 



Show Windows 

Backgrounds 

Cutouts 

Fixtures 

Floors 

Tile Boards 

Valances 
Shutters 
Side Bars 
Side Walls 
Siding 

Barn 

Drop 

Novelty 
Sign Frames 
Silo Doors 
Silos 
Skiffs 

Sliding Doors 
Smoke Houses 
Spreader Sheds 

Stalls 

Shower 
Stationery Cabinets 
Storage Bins 
Storage Cellars 

Store Display 
Material 

Store Equipment 
Store Fixtures 
Store Partitions 
Storm Doors 
Street Signs 
Sub-Flooring 
Summer Cabins 
Summer Houses 
Sun Porches 
Swings 

T 

Table Tops 
Telephone Cabinets 
Tempered Flooring 
Tile Board 

Bathrooms 

Halls 

Kitchens 
Tobacco Barns 
Toilet Partitions 
Tool Chests 
Tool Houses 
Tractor Sheds 
Trailers 
Tree Seats 
Trench Braces 



Troughs 

Feeding 
Truck Bodies 
Truck Sheds 
Turkey Houses 

U 

Utility Boxes 
Utility Houses 

V 

Valances 

Vegetable Houses 
Vegetable Sheds 
Ventilating 
Grilles 
• Systems 

W 

Wagons 
Wagon Barns 
Wagon Boxes 
Wagon Sheds 
Wainscoting 
Wainscoting Panels 

Wall Board 

Beamed Ceilings 

Blackboards 

Bookcase Backs 

Booths 

Ceilings 

Cellar Partitions 

China Closets " 

Clothes Hampers 

Cupboards 

Cutouts 

Decorative Window 

Cornices 
Drawer Bottoms 
Duck Hunter 

Blinds 

Flower Boxes 

Folding Screens 

Garage Lining 

Incubators 

Panelling 

Parade Floats 

Partitions 
Radiator Covers 

Radio Cabinets 
Roof Lining 
Scenic Panels 
Sheathing 



Wall Board — Continued 
Signs 

Table Tops 
Wainscoting 
Wall Covering 
Wood Bench Tops 
Linings for 

Barns 

Bungalows 

Cafes 

Cellar Ceilings 

Churches 

Clubs 

Cottages 

Dairy Houses 

Display Booths 

Factories 

Granaries 
Lodge Rooms 

Milk Houses 
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Pubhc Buildings 
Restaurants 
Rest Rooms 
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Summer Houses 
Window 

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Walls 
Barn 

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Factory 
Food Markets 
Hotels 
House 

Public Building 
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Wardrobes 
Wardrobe Doors 
Warehouses 
Waste Baskets 
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Window Seats 
Window Shutters 
Window Ventilators 
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Wood Baskets 
Wood Sheds 
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TEMPEEED PRESDWOOD 

BLACK TEMPERED PRESDWOOD 

PRESDWOOD TEMPRTILE 

TEMPERED FLOORING 

CONCRETE FORM PRESDWOOD 

UNTEMPERED PRESDWOOD 



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NATIONAL FIBRE BOAIU> LIMITED, GATDVEAU, <; 

Branch Offices: 1624 St. Catherine Street West, Montreal, Quebec 
418 Bloor Boilding, 57 Bloor Street We&t, Toronto, Ontario 



Fann:Mr47/8*8 



DANFORTH WALLBOARD & INSULATION LTD. 

25 Dawes Road Toronto, Ontario 

Telephones: GR. 2724 - OX. 3770 



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